Neuroscience Center focuses on research in molecular and cellular neuroscience, developmental neuroscience, cognitive and systems neuroscience, and basic research of the nervous system diseases. Center currently has 20 research groups and operates mainly in the Meilahti medical campus with some activities also in Viikki. It hosts state-of-art for imaging facility including three multiphoton microscopes for fast scanning 3D brain imaging and optogenetic stimulation in fish and awake rodents, as well as behavioural facilities for mouse and zebrafish and a neuronal cell culture unit. As of 2017 Neuroscience Center is a unit of HiLIFE and collaborates locally with faculties and organizations with an interest in neuroscience.

Helsinki Network Brain & Mind (HNBM) is a neuroscience hub comprising the University of Helsinki, Aalto University and Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), which promotes collaboration for basic, clinical and technological research and development. The Helsinki Network Brain & Mind network includes more than 200 research groups focusing on neuroscience, of which about 160 are from the University of Helsinki, over 40 from HUS and around 20 from Aalto University.

Neuroscience research in the University of Helsinki is particularly strong in the fields of cellular and molecular mechanisms, genetics, and clinical and cognitive brain research. The majority of research groups focusing on neuroscience are located in four faculties (the departments of medicine, bio- and environmental sciences, pharmacology, and veterinary medicine) and a separate HiLIFE Institute, which includes the Neuroscience Center, Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, and the Institute of Biotechnology. Various neuroscience research groups also exist under the Faculty of Education and Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.

Together with the Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), the University of Helsinki forms the largest clinical medicine research community in Finland. HUS sees extensive research in the areas of neurology and psychiatry. Long-term research on cerebrovascular disorders has resulted in outstanding outcomes for stroke treatment at HUS. In psychiatry, HUS has been a pioneer in the introduction of online therapies. The Park Hospital has the first BABA (Baby Brain Activity) research center in Finland, which explores the development of infant brain function

Aalto University has led significant research and technological developments in the field of human imaging in the last decades. The Aalto Brain Center (ABC), comprising approximately 20 research groups working at the School of Science, is Aalto University’s neuroscience and technology center, which focuses on systemic neuroscience and brain stimulation. In addition to the imaging infrastructure available at Aalto, neuroscience research is supported by strong computational and sensor-related research, including machine learning with neural networks, big data, digital health and games.